Khushwant Singh

I am beholden to P.V. Rawal of Jammu for sending me a photograph of Allama Iqbal’s Kashmiri Brahmin family taken in Sialkot in 1931. At this time Iqbal was in his mid-fifties. He had already risen to the top as the greatest Urdu poet, at par with Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib. Although he was proud of his Brahmin descent, he had nothing to say about his Hindu relations. In this picture, the elderly lady seated in the middle is his grandmother, Indirani Sapru, nicknamed Poshi, wife of Pandit Kanhaya Lal Sapru. The man standing on the left in a shawl is Iqbal’s cousin, Amarnath Sapru; note the close resemblance to the poet.
The family traces its origin to one Birbal. They lived in the village of Saprain (hence, the surname Sapru) on Shopian-Kulgam road. Then the family moved to Srinagar where Iqbal and most of his cousins were born. Birbal had five sons and a daughter. The third one, Kanhaya Lal, and his wife, Indirani, had three sons and five daughters. Kanhaya Lal was Iqbal’s grandfather. His son, Rattan Lal, converted to Islam and was given the name Nur Mohammad. He married a Muslim woman — Imam Bibi. The Saprus disowned Rattan Lal and severed all connections with him. There are different versions of Rattan Lal’s conversion. The one given to me by Syeda Hameed, who has translated some of Iqbal’s poetry into English, maintains that Rattan Lal was the revenue collector of the Afghan governor of Kashmir. He was caught embezzling money. The governor offered him a choice: he should either convert to Islam or be hanged. Rattan Lal chose to stay alive. When the Afghan governor fled from Kashmir to escape its takeover by the Sikhs, Rattan Lal migrated to Sialkot. Imam Bibi was evidently a Sialkoti Punjabi. Iqbal was born in Sialkot on November 9, 1877. As often happens, the first generation of converts are more kattar than others. Iqbal thus grew up to be a devout Muslim. It is believed that once he called on his Hindu grandmother, then living in Amritsar. But there is no hard evidence of their meeting and of what passed between them; Iqbal did not write about it. Though he had many Hindu and Sikh friends and admirers, he felt that the future of Indian Muslims lay in having a separate state of their own. Iqbal was the principal ideologue of what later become Pakistan. Iqbal’s mother-tongue was Punjabi but he never wrote in it. He used only Persian and Urdu, as did many Urdu poets before him.
There are many aspects of Iqbal’s personal life which have not been fully researched by his biographers. We know he married two or three times and that his favourite son was Javed, who became a judge of the Lahore high court. Iqbal’s affair with Atia Faizi of Bombay when they met in London is well-known. There must have been some correspondence between them to show the kind of relationship they had. When in Heidelberg, he was taken up by his young German tutor, Emma Veganast. This secret was divulged by the mayor of Heidelberg in a speech in which he named a part of the bank of the river Neckar after him — Iqbal Weg. The Pakistani ambassador to Germany had the mayor’s speech mentioning the girl’s name suppressed. Iqbal and Emma continued to write to each other till the end of his life. The correspondence should be available in archives in Lahore and Heidelberg. Lovers of Iqbal, among whom I count myself, deserve to be presented with a fuller picture of their idol. We have biographies of Rabindranath Tagore revealing all his love affairs but none of the Allama telling us of the kind of man he was.

Standing (second from left): Late Amarnath Sapru, first cousin of Iqbal.
Sitting (from left): Raj Kishori Rawal, d/o Amarnath Sapru; grandmother of Iqbal; and Pt. J.N. Rawal, h/o Raj Kishori

Subject: Fwd: More Re. Fw.Comments:[Abdalian] India or Bust? -Iqbal:Two Taranas & New …

Subj: Re: More Re. Fw.Comments:[Abdalian] India or Bust? -Iqbal:Two Taranas & New Temple

Dear Kalim,

I know some of you feel very deeply about Iqbal – I myself used to attend the Lahore meeting on 21 April every year where some great singers recited his poems firing the audience with great passion and Islamic zeal.

However, with advancing years Iqbal become more and more a captive of his Islamic romanticism and there are poems advising people to submit without any questions to the dictates of the Sharia. I think the best work on Iqbal – Iqbal the progressive and Iqbal the reactionary – is by Wilfred Cantwell Smith (1946). I have read later writings too but they tend to be devotional and sometimes deliberately misleading because once Iqbal become Rahmatulla- Alayheh – nothing can be said in criticism of him.

Iqbal married many times. One of his wives was the sister of Khawaja Ferozuddin. Iqbal never attended to her and she died at her brother’s place after years of neglect. Khawaja Ferozuddin’s son was the famous music director Khawaja Khurshid Anwar. Our house on Temple Road Lahore was one removed from that of Khawaja Ferozuddin. In between was a hay and cattle fodder shop. That was the Temple Road of the 1950s and up to the 1970s.

Aftab Iqbal was Iqbal’s son from his first wife. He also lived on Temple Road for a while. He used to tease women even when he was middle aged and was expelled from there by the people. I am told that Iqbal had liasion with the German governorness he hired for Javid Iqbal but it can be just a rumour deriving from envy but who knows.

Best regards,


The writer is a Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Stockholm University. He is also Honorary Senior Fellow of the Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore. He can be reached at

allama IQBAL’s hindu relations of kashmiri brahmins.doc


About preetlari

"Preetlari", Punjab's magazine established in 1933 and published from Preetnagar, Dist. Amritsar. S. Gurbaksh Singh founded the magazine and also the model village, Preetnagar. The magazine is running in its 78th year and since last year is being taken by nearly 20000 primary and upper primary schools of Punjab ,too.

3 responses »

  1. most of muslims we see today are the sons and daughters of non muslims .
    it may be true that iqbaal was a hindu,but then what? hindus never take back its converted brothers even they hate . it is the quality of hindu people. hindu means hate.

  2. sach keh doon ai brahmin gar tu bura na mane… tere sanamkadon ke but ho gaye purane… apas mein bair rakhna hamne buton se seekha… wayz ko bhi sikhaya jang-o-jadal khuda ne… ALLAMA IQBAL

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